|Capital: Washington, D.C.|
|Area: 9,833,517 km2 (3rd row)|
|Population: 328,239,523 inhabitants (2019) (3rd row)|
|Currency: US dollar|
|Type of state : federal republic|
|Independence: 1776 (Great Britain)|
The flag of the United States of America is composed of 13 horizontal stripes of equal width, 7 red stripes framing 6 white stripes.
The canton has 50 white stars on a blue background (5 rows of 6 stars and 4 rows of 5). Each star represents a state. From 13 stars on the first flag in 1877, this flag was then enriched with a new star for the adhesion of each new state.
The 13 stripes also represent the first 13 states. This flag is nicknamed Stars and Stripes or the Star-Spangled Banner, it has inspired the flag of many countries.
This flag also has the peculiarity that the bands constituting it must be sewn (not printed) to symbolize the union of all the states.
Before the arrival of Spanish, French and English colonizers, North America was inhabited by numerous Amerindian populations .
The Amerindian tribes did not have flags. They have now defined themselves by them to assert their identity.
Below some Indian flags.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was created in 1535 and disappeared in 1821 with the independence of Mexico. It occupied the southern United States (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas).
The flag is a cross of Burgundy
The New France was composed of Louisiana, Acadia and Canada. It existed from 1534 to 1763. At the end of the Seven Years’ War (1759 - 1763), France ceded West Louisiana to Spain and Canada, Acadia and East Louisiana to Great Britain. Napoleon recovered East Louisiana and finally sold it to the United States in 1803.
White flag with a shield bearing three fleurs-de-lis in a necklace of the order of the Holy Spirit surmounted by a crown.
The Thirteen Colonies are British colonies created between 1607 and 1732. In order: Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Georgia. In 1775, they signed the United States Declaration of Independence. In 1776, they separated from Great Britain which triggered the American War of Independence which led to the creation of the United States of America.
The Grand Union Flag is the first flag used during the American Revolutionary War. There are still doubts about the 1st use of the Grand Union Flag. Probably 1755 but tradition says that it was George Washington’s troops who hoisted it in 1776 to Charlestown.
Its colors would come from the British Red Ensign.
In 1777 a flag was defined with thirteen stars in the canton representing the thirteen founding states of the United States of America. The arrangement of the stars not being specified, different models existed. Below are four examples.
In 1795 with the arrival of Kentucky and Vermont, the number of stars increased to fifteen. Different arrangements have existed although the stars are most often aligned in four or five rows.
In 1848, gold was discovered in California. It will be the "gold rush" which will last until 1856. The influx of settlers will cause a rapid expansion of the region and in 1851, California will become the 31st state.
In 1861, 7 anti-abolitionist southern states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas) seceded to form the Confederate States of America. Their President will be Jefferson Davis. During the American Civil War, they opposed the abolitionist northern states, The Union, whose president was Abraham Lincoln.
On the first flag of the Confederate States of America (the southerners), the 7 stars represent the secessionist states (in pink on the map).
Soon, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina and Confederate Arizona (a territory straddling present-day Arizona and New Mexico) will join the Confederate camp (in yellow on the map). In the states of Missouri and Kentucky (in purple on the map) pro-secessionist movements have formed although the local Senate has voted in favour of the Union.
The new secessionist states are added to the confederate flag, which now has 13 stars..
In 1863 northern Virginia decided to join the Union. It takes the name of West Virginia.
In 1863 the confederates changed their flag to a white flag with the Union War Flag in the canton. A blue cross with thirteen stars on a red background.
The Civil War ended in 1865 with the surrender of the southern army.
In 1865, a red stripe was added to the confederate flag to prevent it from being confused with a white surrender flag.
The last state to join the United States was the state of Hawaii on July 4, 1960. The addition of a 50th star will give the United States its current flag.
July 21, 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon and set a flag more than 300,000 miles from the United States..
The anthem of the United States speaks of its flag and glorifies it, and it bears the same name as the Star-Spangled Banner. It is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful national anthems. The words of the first verse are as follows:
O say, can you see by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
O, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
Click on the photo or the link to hear the United States anthem
Click on the Youtube link.
The flag of the Confederate States of America has become the symbol of white supremacy and racism, it is notably used by the ku klux klan. It constitutes a provocation in Washington. The flag of the state of Mississippi which contained this cross was modified in 2020.
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